Whilst the games are on-going still, the BROOKINGS published this very educational article on Friday, August 12, 2016 and we reproduce it here for perhaps help in its wider exposure to the MENA region readers.  It must be stressed that the MENA performance so far is marginal at best and that Bahrain leads the pack with a couple of gold/silver trophies.  The question would be at this conjecture, whether the MENA’s Olympic ambitions, if they were any, have to  be considered as potentially plausible, now that the region’s current wave of infrastructure development is being implemented and to at completion bring it level with past Olympic venues.    

Aligning Olympic ambitions with urban-access concerns in Rio and beyond

Joseph Kane, Senior Research Analyst & Associate Fellow – Metropolitan Policy Program

Friday, August 12, 2016

Rio de Janeiro, like many previous host cities, has viewed the Olympics as a way to boost its political standing globally and create durable economic benefits locally. More often than not, the promise of increased tourism, job creation, and renewed investment appears in plans that cities submit as part of their bids to the International Olympic Committee. Over time, however, the costs often outweigh these potential benefits as the immense physical and financial scale of many Olympic projects – from stadiums to housing – become notoriously difficult to manage, even long before the Games begin.

This cautionary tale is nothing new – more cities are simply backing away from the IOC selection process altogether – but mega events like the Olympics still hold an allure for many regions looking to drive new infrastructure improvements and jumpstart broader economic-development efforts. When it comes to transportation upgrades, in particular, Rio offers a useful case to consider, where the need for greater urban access and connectivity remains a clear work in progress.

As a sprawling mega city with more than 6.5 million residents, Rio not only covers a diverse and expansive urban landscape, but it also poses significant spatial barriers to economic opportunity, with nearly a quarter of its population living in poorer, outlying favelas. Frequently cut off from jobs and other basic services, many of Rio’s residents must overcome great distances and some of the world’s worst traffic congestion to reach their destinations. This is especially true for commuters who can spend up to 31 percent more time getting to their jobs every day than do those in other Brazilian cities, leading to lost productivity and a host of other environmental concerns.

The Olympics, in turn, have helped spur a variety of transportation improvements aimed at providing increased reliability and flexibility. Championed by Rio Mayor Eduardo Paes and outlined in the city’s strategic plan, “the implementation of a modern integrated high-capacity transport system” has represented a major component of the region’s Olympics legacy. In addition to several port and roadway expansions, public and private leaders have spearheaded the creation of a new light-rail systema 10-mile subway extension, and nearly 280 miles of new cycling paths. Perhaps most notably, Rio has built out a robust network of bus rapid transit, or BRT, corridors, looking to connect more than 60 percent of its residents with easy access to mass transportation.

Of course, Rio has not exactly carried out these projects with glowing reviews, continuing to endure a number of economic struggles and infrastructure shortfalls along the way. Construction delays, political controversies, and corruption charges have dominated headlines leading up to the Olympics, while total infrastructure costs have ballooned to nearly $20 billion and public budgets have been stretched to the limit. At the same time, favela residents have faced evictionslong-standing inequalities appear to be getting worse, and questions loom over the ability of transportation upgrades to serve all types of users.

While many of these infrastructure challenges are specific to Rio, there are several lessons other cities worldwide can gain from its experience as they shift to a new transportation model that increasingly puts people first, whether they end up hosting the Olympics or not. . . .

Read more of this article and others in Brookings website.