Bibhu Mishra of Humboldt University, Berlin elaborates on Transitioning towards sustainable economy: Role of financial institutions such as Central Banks and financial systems in The Times of India.
Transitioning towards sustainable economy: Role of Central Banks and financial systems
“For peace to reign on Earth, humans must evolve into new beings who have learned to see the whole first”, said Kant.
Climate change is real; it affects and will affect everyone. Mother Nature sends its signals regularly, and most recently through the flash floods in western Germany. These signals are an urgent reminder that we need to take action now. The action must be collective, significant, timely, and futuristic because, in the long term, the risks outweigh the costs.
The Paris climate accord is one such step in the right direction. A holistic and stakeholder-driven approach would be required to achieve the target of maintaining temperature rise by 1.5 degrees Celsius. One of the most significant stakeholders in such efforts is the global financial system. The financial system’s role is pivotal because they provide finance and steer economic growth. Their actions have a significant impact on ESG, i.e., Environment, Society, and Governance.
There is a tremendous surge in investments which keeps ESG at the core of investment decisions. According to Bloomberg, ‘ESG assets may hit $53 trillion by 2025, a third of global AUM’. Despite a phenomenal rise in ESG assets in the past decade, the financial system still faces challenges like ‘short-termism’ and ‘greenwashing.’
Therefore, the role of Central Banks is vital. They look at the financial system of a country as a whole. Former Governor of the Bank of England, Mark Carney coined the concept ‘Tragedy of the Horizon’ to explain this. He argued, “the catastrophic impacts of climate change will be felt beyond the traditional horizons of most banks, investors and financial policymakers, imposing costs on future generations that the current one has no direct incentives to fix.” It is a tricky paradox where the current system has little or no benefits but to save the planet in its current state or better for the coming generations.
Realizing the importance of its role, eight central banks and supervisors created (In December 2017) a ‘Network of Central Banks and Supervisors for Greening the Financial System (NGFS).’The NGFS is aimed to make coordinated efforts to combat climate change. As of June 30, 2021, the NGFS has grown to a network of 95 members and 15 observers. The Network’s purpose, in their own words; “to help strengthen the global response required to meet the Paris agreement’s goals and enhance the role of the financial system to manage risks and mobilize capital for green and low-carbon investments in the broader context of environmentally sustainable development.”
The NGFS is a significant step towards bringing central banks of different countries together and ensuring that central banks take the leadership role in fighting against the climate crisis. In its first comprehensive report (Pub 2019), It came up with the following six suggestions and floated the idea of global collective leadership.
Integrating climate-related risks into financial stability monitoring and micro-supervision
Integrating sustainability factors into own-portfolio management
Bridging the data gaps
Building awareness and intellectual capacity and encouraging technical assistance and knowledge sharing
Achieving robust and internationally consistent climate and environment-related disclosure
Supporting the development of a taxonomy of economic activities
Additionally, the steps taken by the Central Banks of England (Bank of England) and France (Banque de France) are noteworthy and worth a mention.
Recently, the [Central] Bank of England launched a stress test for banks and insurers to understand the ability of the UK Financial system to cope with climate change. The test is aimed to examine the resilience of the UK’s 19 biggest banks and insurers. The stress test can also be looked at as an acknowledgement that Climate Change poses significant financial risks to the existing financial system. Therefore, early planning of a transition is necessary.
Moreover, ‘Banque de France,’ the central bank of France, took several initiatives to transition the financial industry into zero carbon. In June 2021, the French ACPR (Autorité de contrôle prudential et de résolution, English translation: French Prudential Supervision and Resolution Authority) published the first climate pilot exercise report an overall ‘moderate’ exposure to climate risks.
Let’s understand the risk through an example. Investing in fossil fuels may generate returns in the short term,’ but it will accelerate climate change and, hence, negatively impact the ESG. The negative impact on climate could cause erratic rains or severe drought, leading to an adverse effect on investments made in agriculture and allied sectors. One sector’s gain can be the loss of another sector, posing a significant risk before the overall financial system.
To ensure a smooth transition of the financial system towards sustainability and make it resilient from other systemic risks, early and coordinated action is needed. Central Banks and financial systems have a significant role to play in our journey towards sustainability.
Bibhu Mishra is a German Chancellor Fellow at Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and a researcher with Institute of Asian and African Studies, Humboldt University, Berlin.
It’s all about Value. It’s the name of the game. Create it economically; capture it distinctively. So, a ‘value proposition framework’ for sustainable development is put forward here by Green Biz authors.
A ‘value proposition framework’ for sustainable development
Whatever theoretical economic framework (such as game theory or decision analysis) or business model you want to select, value is at the heart of it. Individuals, organizations businesses and governments act to increase value — also referred to as utility — from their perspectives.
We believe this is a key to understanding the actions of various stakeholders in sustainable development, developing new strategies for making sustainability progress and, most important, for building effective collaborations across and between stakeholders upon which real sustainability rests and relies.
Collaboration requires a desire for shared value — finding the commonalities in seeking defined outcomes, then working together to increase utility or value propositions for all involved stakeholders. Not everyone needs to like each other or agree on every outcome to build effective collaborations, but they also can’t be at odds. This requires all parties to understand perspectives and find the common ground.
Businesses — with their human, financial and capital wealth — represent an enormous (or potentially enormous) powerful force when it comes to sustainable development. Therefore, we think it critical to understand the value propositions that all businesses face — both danger and opportunity — in terms of sustainability. In the long run, their viability and success also depend upon it.Collaboration requires a desire for shared value — finding the commonalities in seeking defined outcomes, then working together to increase utility or value propositions for all involved stakeholders.
All companies have in common five primary value propositions, although not everyone regards them as a set. Each has a direct connection to sustainability:
Growing the bottom line: Profit
It’s the bottom line — revenues minus the costs — that still makes the ultimate business case.
It’s also one of the easiest cases to make for sustainability. A company can increase its profit directly by reducing costs, and for many companies, energy, water and waste costs can be significant.
Reducing these through focused measurement, process improvement and/or specific projects can directly improve the bottom line while also improving the sustainability of the overall enterprise. It is where many companies start their sustainability engagement and with good reason: The economics can be enormous.
Dow Inc., in its first set of 10-year sustainability goals, returned $4 billion to the company on a $1 billion investment in projects. Energy reduction also reduces costs and carbon emissions. Reducing its environmental “footprint” is also often the most immediate way for a company to build credibility for its sustainability efforts. Companies that talk a good game about sustainability but don’t take meaningful action to reduce their own footprint lose credibility and reputation, which hurts them in markets for products and services, talent and investment.
Growing the top line: Revenue
Revenues grow through increasing market share or successful development of new products and services in response to society’s needs and desires, and it’s clear that sustainability trends have become big drivers.
Tesla is one example of visionary and bold investment in a single, although major, sustainability driver: electrification of mobility. Tesla has been very successful in this regard, but looking across all auto companies, you see the accelerating interest — and new product announcements — to capitalize on this incredibly important driver. (It will be interesting to see if GM and Ford can make the transition to become leaders in the future of electric mobility; we like their chances).
In the water area, companies such as EcoLab have built entire platforms around the management of water, cleaning water and recycling of water. The list goes on, but the key principle here is to identify the trends, invest in R&D and new products and processes, and ride the wave all the way to successful business growth.
Attracting, developing and retaining top talent
Employees are the core of any successful company. Top talent is drawn to — and kept in — companies that are successful in developing and implementing the kind of proactive sustainability strategies for their companies that make a material and purposeful difference.
Very few top students want to join a company whose activities are viewed as making climate change worse or polluting rivers and oceans or harming biodiversity and nature. Sustainability is the new “table stakes” for attracting top talent today.
When Neil was CSO at Dow, Dow attracted thousands of new employees in China from top universities with a “Green Jobs” program where recruits could join Dow to have real sustainability impact in applying their degrees (and Dow’s retention rates for these students was much higher than peer companies). When Laura was director of communication/citizenship at Dow Corning, top students didn’t wait for on-campus recruiting. When the company launched its first Citizen Service Corps, students started calling the company’s media center.
Look at any companies on campus these days and you will see that their efforts in sustainability are featured prominently. What is more interesting is the importance of sustainability to developing and retaining top leadership talent.
Like a customer you don’t want to lose, retaining the most valuable employees is critical. The drivers for hiring new talent are really the same as “rehiring” current employees. Dow very successfully used sustainability experiences — special projects, in-field assignments, academies and simulations — to develop leadership and strategy skills, while integrating sustainability across the company. Many of these future leaders remained because of the skills that Dow invested in for them in sustainability.
Attracting and retaining investors
All companies require capital. And the pace of acceleration for consideration of environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors has increased significantly. Virtually no company can survive and thrive anymore with its investor base without addressing sustainability concerns as an enterprise.
Dow started third-party verified Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) reporting more than 15 years ago, and it learned and grew along the way; it worked with other reporting programs such as CDP as well. In 2020, Dow was named to the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index (DJSI) by S&P Global, the 21st year Dow has achieved this prestigious ranking due to its comprehensive sustainability programs. Dow became much more involved more than five years ago after the Paris climate talks when Michael Bloomberg and Mark Carney appointed Neil (then Dow’s CSO) to join the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures, part of the Financial Stability Board.
Dow helped establish the reporting criteria, but beyond that, the experience provided Dow real learning and insight into where banks, financial institutions, insurance companies, bond underwriters and investors were headed. All companies today need to pay careful attention because investors are paying careful attention. One has only to read BlackRock CEO Lawrence Fink’s growing expectations in his annual letter or observe ExxonMobil’s abrupt board member changes to see that the term “activist investor” has been redefined. Times have changed.
Collaborating for mutual success while addressing key challenges
Finding safe places to collaborate to create the healthy ecosystems in which enterprise thrives is critical: supply chains, marketplaces, workforces, communities, industries — no company goes it alone.
Finding safe places to collaborate is neither easy nor simple. Competitors have antitrust concerns. Customers and suppliers have adversarial positions relative to costs. NGOs often have adversarial advocacy positions to individual companies or to whole industry sectors, and governments view their roles as to regulate and tax companies.
All of that adversarial energy can be put to better use if the focus is on more narrow objectives, especially those that involve sustainable development of regions, countries and the world as a whole. There is usually widespread agreement that we cannot regulate or litigate to stop negative trends in nature, public health, social equity and ecosystems, and that if we work together we can accelerate progress. But to do that requires a maturity of perspective on the part of stakeholders that we can agree to disagree on many things, but still find common ground to solve more narrow challenges.Adversarial energy can be put to better use if the focus is on more narrow objectives, especially those that involve sustainable development of regions, countries and the world as a whole.
The collaboration between The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and Dow, which recently celebrated its 10th anniversary, is one such example. Finding ways to incorporate the value of nature inside the company to better inform strategic decisions was of interest to Dow, and TNC was interested in preserving nature. Both saw that valuing the services of nature would help them to meet their respective goals, and they could collaborate with integrity. It set a new standard and example for collaboration, which continues to benefit both organizations, serve as an example to companies and organizations across industries, and preserve and enhance nature, using the power of capital in a way that no mere philanthropic strategy ever could.
When Dow worked with the University of Michigan to establish the Dow Graduate Sustainability Fellows more than a decade ago, significant faculty concerns were raised about their independence and intellectual academic freedom. Together, the company and the university put in place safeguards in response to those concerns, and hundreds of Dow Sustainability Fellows have benefitted, as have the University and those communities whose projects were addressed and implemented.
Neither example would have occurred without a strong platform for collaborating on sustainability challenges. These collaborations have helped Dow advance its business strategies and helped it learn and grow, positioning the company for future success. At the same time, these stakeholders also thrived. Win-win.
Value propositions for corporate sustainability
What company does not want top- and bottom-line growth? What company does not want top talent in their sector? What company does not want access to capital that is lower cost and more plentiful? And what company does not need platforms to collaborate with their value chain, in their communities and with their governments?
This five-part value proposition framework holds that promise for companies. Nothing short of their survival and growth is at stake today.
But we also believe that the other major stakeholder groups can benefit from understanding this framework for companies, by surfacing new ideas and creating proposals for collaboration that are more sophisticated in understanding the aspirations of their prospective company partners. At the end of the day, we all want to drive more sustainable action and bringing all stakeholders into collaborations will help us accelerate progress. Show comments for this story.
BRINK‘s GEOPOLITICS article tells us How Does the Arab World Move Away From Oil Dependence? It also tells us how this part of the MENA region should leave in the ground substantial unexploited reserves of hydrocarbons together with its vast expense of stranded assets for good.
It is now common knowledge that for some time and without dramatic breakthroughs, widespread power generation from solar, photovoltaics and wind will remain more expensive than fossil fuels. And electric vehicles won’t replace gasoline-powered vehicles unless battery costs drop and oil prices go up at unrealistic rates. Analyses by researchers concluded some time back that market forces alone won’t reduce the world’s energy needs to be met by fossil fuels.Economic development and energy in the age of climate change cannot possibly wait for another opportunity. Anyhow, let us what Margareta Drzeniek, author of the article has to say.
The picture above is for illustration and of Arab News.
How Does the Arab World Move Away From Oil Dependence?
The Arab world has historically been a hotspot for global risks. Over the past decades, the risk nexus of a tense geopolitical environment, high levels of youth unemployment and governments’ inability to diversify economies has been challenging the region’s leaders.
The COVID pandemic accelerated pressures on income, and the twin transition to net zero and a more technology-driven economy will only exacerbate the region’s exposure to global risks and underlying gaps in resilience. While the region is not homogenous, three interdependent areas are key to strengthen resilience in all countries: economic diversification away from dependence on commodity or low-value exports, private sector growth to enable job creation, and future-proofing skills.
Getting Out of Oil
Many countries have undertaken major reform efforts to reduce commodity dependency. The Gulf countries’ economic development plans — usually dubbed Vision 2030 or the like — have aggressive targets and high ambitions.
For example, Saudi Arabia is implementing Vision 2030, which aims at transforming society, diversifying the economy, creating jobs and increasing the level of ambition throughout.
In the UAE, efforts are taking place at the Emirate level, notably in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, which both have 2030 strategies that aim to strengthen high-end manufacturing (e.g., in medical equipment and aerospace). The objectives are ambitious — Abu Dhabi aims to grow the non-oil sector by more than 7.5% annually.
Similar initiatives are under way in North Africa. Trade agreements with the EU entered at the turn of the millennium have had some success, notably in the automotive sector, where exports increased by a factor of 50 to 60 in Egypt and Morocco and tripled in Tunisia. Nevertheless, countries in North Africa remain dependent on a few sectors, including tourism, agriculture and apparel and on the EU market.
The African Continental Free Trade Area, which started trading in 2021, provides an important opportunity for diversification and integration at the regional level, including regional backward linkages to ensure broader participation in global value chains. Weak infrastructure and connections between countries remain to be addressed to more fully benefit from this opportunity.
Public Sector Still the Employer of Choice
Private sector growth has been a key to building a strong and vibrant domestic private sector that provides employment for the significant youth bulge currently entering the labor market in all countries of the region.
In most countries in the region, the public sector remains the employer of choice due to perceived employment stability over a lifetime, but also because many people lack the skills required in the private sector, notably soft skills such as for example team work, entrepreneurial attitudes and agility.
The transition to a more environmentally sustainable economic model appears to be risky at first glance, but investment in renewables could provide a solution to the unemployment challenge.
However, the public sector is not able to absorb all the young people coming into the market. Private sector growth is necessary for political stability, but it has been hampered by heavy regulatory environments, rent-seeking behavior and governance challenges, and political uncertainty.
Some positive developments are happening in local startup ecosystems, which have been blossoming across the region, enabled by digital business models that circumvent some of the rigidities of the traditional business environment and take advantage of the prevalence of digital technologies.
Energy Sustainability Is the Critical Pathway
The region’s elephant in the room remains environmental sustainability.
It is important in two ways. Firstly, the world’s move to net zero threatens the very economic model of hydrocarbon-exporting MENA countries, and secondly, countries experience significant environmental degradation and are major pollutants.
Qatar places 122nd in the Environmental Performance Index; Saudi Arabia is 90th and Morocco 100th (UAE, however, is a better 42nd). Challenges range from threats to biodiversity, which is low for climatic reasons, and water shortages, to an energy-vore lifestyle coupled with a lack of awareness of sustainability challenges. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are also among the top 14 per capita emitters of carbon dioxide globally.
Albeit from a low level, efforts to improve on environmental sustainability are gaining speed. The UAE’s Energy Strategy 2050 aims to double the contribution of renewables in the country’s energy mix, and the renewable energy capacity in the Gulf countries already increased by approximately 313% between 2014 and 2018.
Strategic investments with Chinese partners are the main channel toward achieving this objective. Deteriorating air quality in the region and its potential impact on health may increase pressures on governments to tackle the issue more holistically.
The transition to a more environmentally sustainable economic model appears to be risky at first glance. Progress in diversification and private sector development has been slow, and although the region is entrepreneurial, youth unemployment remains a key issue. However, recent research shows that investment in renewables could provide a solution to the unemployment challenge.
Renewable energies are generally more labor-intensive than extractives. The International Renewable Energy Agency estimates that current commitments and project plans could create 220,000 jobs in GCC countries by 2030.
To sum up, while economic diversification is crucial, the energy transition provides resilient recovery pathways to the MENA region that could ensure future growth, a stronger intergenerational contract and higher resilience.
Margareta Drzeniek is a managing partner at Horizon Group. She previously led the economics unit of the World Economic Forum and was in charge of the main flagship reports, including The Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Risks Report.
Originally posted on globalrhythmz: The music Aziza Brahim makes reflects both the sorrow and the hope of these people. She grew up in one of those camps in the Algerian desert, along with thousands of other Saharwai who were removed from their homes in the Western Sahara. The refugee camp was the place that formed…
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