For purposes of mainly Invigorating Female Entrepreneurship in Egypt’s ecosystem, a “SHE CAN – 2019” organized by Entreprenelle, kickstarted by Rania Ayman in 2015 as an organization eventing conferences as a mean to empower and motivate women so as help them believe in their ability to change their destiny.
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SHE CAN 2019, a conference dedicated to MENA women entrepreneurs, hosted its third annual edition at the Greek campus, Downtown Cairo, Egypt, with the theme ‘Successful Failures’. Launched by Entreprenelle, an Egypt-based social enterprise which aims to economically empower women through awareness, education and access to resources, the conference held a wide range of panel discussions, talks and workshops on innovative thinking, creativity, technology, raising capital and invigorating female entrepreneurship in the ecosystem.
Gathering more than 5,000 participants and 50 partners, including UN Women, the Swedish Embassy, the National Council for Women, Nahdet Masr, Avon, Orange and Export Development Bank of Egypt, it also highlighted the endeavors of Entrepenelle alumni. It was also an opportunity for aspiring entrepreneurs to learn from sessions featuring tips on pitching business ideas, mentorship, as well as startup competitions. Female-founded startups were also able to showcase their products and services in an exhibition area.
Speaking about the conference focusing on the necessity to experience failure on one’s entrepreneurial path, Dorothy Shea, Deputy Ambassador of the US Embassy in Cairo, commented, “As far as I’m concerenced, the sky is the limit. Women should be able to achieve whatever their dreams are. What I was struck by was this idea of “successful failures,” we need to not fear failure, it’s not a destination, it is a stepping stone to success. Sometimes there can be a fear of failure, but as part of this entrepreneurship ecosystem, they are really trying to move that inhibition away. We learn from our failures and then we take our plans to the next level. I was really inspired by this theme.”
Founded in 2015, Entreprenelle has more than 10 entrepreneurship programs conducted in nine governorates, including Cairo, Alexandria, Mansoura, Minya, Assiut, Sohag and Aswan.
For a number of years now, the provision of languages in British schools and universities has been in decline. Yet, as Brexit looms largely on the horizon, there has been much talk in the media and from politicians about the need for a “global Britain”.
Arguably, a country can only really be global and outward looking if language skills are considered essential for its citizens. The government seems to share this view – at least to some extent. This is reflected in the fact that the Department of Education has provided funding to open a National Centre for Excellence for Language Pedagogy and to roll out a cross-sector mentoring project, which was piloted very successfully in Wales.
A number of surveys, such as the annual British Council survey of English primary and secondary schools, reports on the falling numbers of pupils participating in language learning. This is a decline that started in 2004, when languages were taken out of the compulsory curriculum in secondary schools.
There was a rise in the number of pupils taking languages in 2011 as a result of the introduction of the English Baccalaureate (EBACC) – which has a language as a core subject. However, this increase proved to be shortlived, despite the government’s ambition for 90% of pupils to gain the EBACC by 2025.
In 2014, the Guardian commissioned a survey which questioned young people about learning languages. The survey identified some of the main benefits people perceive to be linked to learning languages. This includes: better job prospects abroad, talking to other people, learning about another culture, learning another skill, and incentive to travel.
On the other hand, perceived downsides were seen as languages being difficult, the predominance of English, and that the way languages are taught in schools is “not useful in real life”.
To find out more about why young people choose (not) to study a language, we surveyed 107 students that were studying a language at Lancaster University or the University of Nottingham. This includes students who studied a language as an optional module to complement their main degree course, as well as those who studied a language as part of their degree.
Our survey showed that for the vast majority of these degree students (over 90%) and students taking optional modules (over 75%) their main motivation was enjoyment as well as a genuine interest in the language and the countries where it is spoken. This aspect ranks much higher than “employability skills” – despite this often being the main angle under which languages are promoted.
Students do, however, realise and appreciate the broad range of transferable skills gained from studying languages. This includes analytical and problem solving skills, the ability to communicate well (also in your first language), and committing yourself to a long-term project.
When asked what might put young people off studying a language and why they think there are not more language learners in the UK, many referred to the lack of engagement with cultural aspects – such as history, politics, society or literature – in language classes. They also spoke of the myth of English being the only language you need, poor handling of languages in the British education system, and the lack of governmental initiatives to promote the study of languages.
To get more people excited about languages then, there needs to be a rethink of the way in which they are promoted and embedded into the curriculum. And there must be more focus on enjoyment and intercultural competence and more cultural engagement and “real-life” tasks.
This is important, because studying a language is not just about enhancing your CV and adding something useful to your skills set. It is also about embracing other cultures, developing intercultural competence, enjoying languages as an exciting object of study, and reflecting on your own national and cultural identity.
The government should also recognise the importance of languages and rethink the value placed on foreign language competency in the British education system. A national policy on languages could help to address attitudes towards languages and further promote joined up thinking across the different education sectors.
Migrant or expatriate workers continue adding to the labour force of oil-rich Gulf due to mega-construction projects, UN data shows. Al Jazeera posted this article dated 20 Dec 2018 elaborating on a situation known to all since the advent of oil.
Blue-collar migrant workers continue adding to the
labour force of the oil-rich Gulf, skewing long-standing efforts by its leaders
to increase the percentage of its own citizens in the workforce, data of the
UN’s International Labour Organization (ILO) shows.
Figures released this month in a 78-page study, ILO
Global Estimates on National Migrant Workers, showed that the proportion of
migrants in the eastern Arab region’s workforce ballooned by 5.2 percent from
2013 to 2017, mostly in the construction sector.
Migrants now make up 40.8 percent of the workforce
across a 12-nation region that includes the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) bloc of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain and Oman.
This is a much higher proportion than other rich
regions that attract some of the world’s estimated 164 million migrant workers.
In comparison, migrants make up only 20.6 percent of the labour force in North
America, and 17.8 percent in Europe.
In Dubai, Doha and other Gulf
boomtowns, foreigners make up as much as 90 percent of workers, according to
older figures. The ILO did not have data on separate countries for this month’s
report; Ryszard Cholewinski, the ILO’s Beirut-based expert on migrant
workers, said that figures provided by Gulf governments are often
The increase in labour flows to Gulf states these past five years was driven mainly by mega-construction projects, including pavilions for Expo 2020 Dubai and the FIFA World Cup 2022 stadiums being built across Qatar, said Cholewinski.
Demand has also grown for maids, gardeners, drivers
and other domestic staff, he added. In particular, more foreign carers are
being hired to look after a growing number of elderly folks in their homes, as
the Gulf population ages.
“The demand for male workers in the Arab
states explains the sharp increase in the share of migrant workers in this
region. Many of these workers are manual labourers, located mostly in the
construction sector,” Natalia Popova, an ILO labour economist, told Al
“Possible other reasons for the increase in
the high share of migrant workers may include the increasing demand for
domestic workers, both male and female, as well as for migrant workers in the
While data on nationalisation efforts is skewed due
to the sheer amount of blue-collar migrants, Gulf leaders have long sought to
boost the numbers of their working citizens, mainly in the white-collar workforce.
However, state-led hiring drives, with
such names as Qatarisation, Emiratisation and Saudisation, have had only
limited success, particularly in the private sector, according to the ILO.
“Many of these nationalisation policies are
not really having any impact. It’s one of the region’s big challenges,”
Cholewinski told Al Jazeera.
“There’s a lot of rhetoric on nationalisation in for example Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 agenda. But in practice, this is
going extremely slowly.”
Al Jazeera contacted the UN missions of all six
Gulf states by email and telephone over the course of several days, but was not
able to get a comment on this issue.
While each Gulf nation faces different challenges
when it comes to nationalisation, many Gulf citizens loathe taking jobs in
private companies, which cannot compete with the pension plans, generous holidays
and shorter working hours in the cushy jobs-for-life enjoyed by civil servants.
This can lead to odd distortions. A visitor to
Dubai, the UAE’s tourism hub, can spend their whole week-long vacation being
served by migrant workers in shops, taxis and eateries, and the only Emirati
they meet is a passport-stamping immigration clerk at the airport.
Last month, the UAE launched it’s so-called Citizen
Redistribution Policy to temporarily shift civil servants into private sector
jobs. It also rolled out training schemes for Emiratis and online recruitment
In recent months, Riyadh has introduced rules
requiring shops to have Saudis in at least 70 percent of sales jobs. Expat
workers pay monthly fees for their spouses and children, employers pay similar
penalties for foreign employees.
Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin
Salman’s ambitious Vision 2030 agenda aims to overhaul the Saudi economy by
massively expanding the healthcare, education, recreation and tourism sectors
and slash the high unemployment rates for young Saudis.
John Shenton, chairman of the Chartered Institute
of Building’s Novus initiative, which supports construction jobs in Dubai, told
Al Jazeera that Gulf nationalisation schemes were bearing fruit.
In some state-regulated sectors, such as banking,
legal and financial services, the number of local staff has grown, Shenton
said. “If the goal is to get more Emiratis in the workforce then it’s
having some effect,” said Shenton. “However there are other factors
that will mean that those efforts may not be reflected in the data.”
These gains are dwarfed by the mass-recruitment of
foreign construction workers to build the skyscrapers, malls and artificial
islands for which the region is famous, he added.
“At a site level, the chaps in safety boots
and hard hats will always be from the subcontinent or South Asia,” Shenton
“At the engineering and supervisory level, the
skill set required can’t be satisfied by the number of local graduates. The
volume of work being undertaken and the discreet programme dates associated
with projects like Qatar 2022 necessitate our hosts resourcing from
Melissa Roza, a headhunter at a Dubai-based
recruitment firm, said nationalisation schemes had made gains in some
white-collar jobs, but that state-set hiring quotas and penalty fees were also
hurting these sectors.
Banks in the UAE often prefer to pay fines for
hiring foreigners than to cover the recruitment costs involved in hiring an
Emirati, training them up and meeting their high salary expectations, she said.
Executives have also found workarounds by hiring
migrants via outsourcing firms, which do not affect the quota count, added
Roza, whose name was changed so she could talk frankly on a hot-button
The UAE has been ranked as the top country in the
Middle East and North Africa for wage equality, according to a new report
released by the World Economic Forum (WEF).
However, the UAE’s performance on the WEF’s Global
Gender Gap Report 2018’s wage equality indicator saw a slight decrease
compared to last year, a statement said.
The Emirates also topped the region in terms of the
number of women in ministerial positions, with improvements recorded in gender
parity in the legislators, senior officials and managers and healthy life
Overall, the report found that despite the gender
gap across the MENA region closing narrowly in 2018, it remains the world’s
least gender-equal region.
It will take the Middle East and North Africa
economies “153 years to close the gender gap at the current rate of change”, the report stated.
While Tunisia topped the region for gender equality
– ranking 119 globally, the UAE ranked 121 with the gender gap closed at 64.2
per cent. Saudi Arabia, ranked 141 with a 59 per cent gender gap rate, showed
“modest progress”, with improvement in wage equality and women’s labour force
participation, the report stated.
Globally, the report found that the global gender
gap only slightly reduced in 2018, as stagnation in the proportion of women in
the workplace and women’s declining representation in politics, along with
greater inequality in access to health and education, offset improvements in
wage equality and the number of women in professional positions.
According to the report, the world has closed 68
per cent of its gender gap, as measured across four key pillars: economic
opportunity; political empowerment; educational attainment; and health and survival.
Last year was the first since the report began
publishing in 2006 that the gap between men and women widened.
At the current rate of change, the report indicated
that it will take 108 years to close the overall gender gap and 202 years to
bring about parity in the workplace.
Globally, having closed more than 85.8 per cent of
its overall gender gap, Iceland topped the list for the 10th
consecutive year. It was followed by Norway, Sweden, Finland and Nicaragua.
“The economies that will succeed in the Fourth
Industrial Revolution will be those that are best able to harness all their
available talent,” said Klaus Schwab, founder and executive chairman of the
“Proactive measures that support gender parity and
social inclusion and address historical imbalances are therefore essential for
the health of the global economy as well as for the good of society as a
The report also found that while the income gap
between men and women has become narrower, fewer women are participating in the
“This a worrisome development for which there are a
number of potential reasons,” the report said.
“One is that automation is having a
disproportionate impact on roles traditionally performed by women. At the same
time, women are under-represented in growing areas of employment that require
STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) skills and knowledge.
Another potential reason is that the infrastructure needed to help women enter
or re-enter the workforce – such as childcare and eldercare – is
under-developed and unpaid work remains primarily the responsibility of women,”
the report explained.
“The corollary is that the substantial investments
made by many economies to close the education gap are failing to generate
optimal returns in the form of growth.”
According to Saadia Zahidi, head of the Centre for
the New Economy and Society and member of the WEF managing board, industries
must “proactively hardwire gender parity in the future of work through
effective training, reskilling and upskilling interventions and tangible job
“It’s in their long-term interest because diverse
businesses perform better,” she added.
Today no one ignores that in the MENA region, countries’ education systems amongst others are undergoing difficult times. Here is a UN’s report review confirming whilst shedding some light on the goings-on.
Migrant and refugee children to face incredible hardships attending schools and accessing education, a new United Nations report released on Tuesday has revealed, highlighting also structural weaknesses in national systems that can sometimes exclude children on the move.
According to the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), factors such as non-certified schools, language different and limited resources are keeping refugee and migrant children away from learning and prospects for a better future.
“The right of these children to quality education, even if increasingly recognized on paper, is challenged daily in classrooms and schoolyards and denied outright by a few governments,” said the UN agency in a news release, announcing its new Global Education Monitoring Report.
Alongside this stark finding, the report did note some progress, especially in some of the largest refugee-hosting nations, in inclusion of refugee children in national education systems.
Champions include low income countries such as Chad, Ethiopia and Uganda, noted the report, adding that Canada and Ireland are leading in implementing inclusive education policies for immigrants.
Education ‘key to inclusion and cohesion’ – UNESCO Director-General
Audrey Azoulay, the Director-General or UNESCO, highlighted the importance of education to make communities stronger and more resilient.
Increased classroom diversity, while challenging for teachers, can also enhance respect for diversity and an opportunity to learn from others – UNESCO head Audrey Azoulay
“Everyone loses when the education of migrants and refugees is ignored. Education is the key to inclusion and cohesion. Increased classroom diversity, while challenging for teachers, can also enhance respect for diversity and an opportunity to learn from others.”
The 2019 edition of the report – which focuses on migration, displacement and education – also highlighted the need for additional resources for low- and middle-income countries, which host almost 90 per cent of refugees globally but lack funds to cope.
“Donors need to multiply their expenditure on refugee education by three and ensure long term support,” added UNESCO.
In addition, the report also called for better understanding and planning to meet the education needs of migrants and displaced people, as well as greater and accurate representation of migration and displacement histories in the curriculum to challenge prejudices.
Alongside, it also recommended that teachers of migrants and refugees be provided with better preparation to help address diversity and hardship.
Two 2018 reports dealing with Human Development that do not give the same results (certainly using different methods of calculation) were published. It is that of the UNDP and recently on 11 October 2018 that of the World Bank. These two reports show the urgency of adapting to the new global geo-strategic mutations, the world being at the dawn of the Fourth World Economic Revolution, which will be dominated by the primacy of knowledge and good governance in the world as the two pillars in the foundation of the development of the 21st century.
The latest report of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), examines the positive and negative linkages between work and human development in a rapidly evolving world, where rapid globalisation, demographic transitions, environmental challenges and many other factors create new opportunities, but also pose risks, that generates winners and losers.
In its recent publication of the Human Development Index (HDI) report 2018, the UNDP confirms the weak positioning of Africa. The ten least well-ranked countries out of a total of 179 assessed by the report are African. The UNDP reveals that, beyond the overall improvement in the living conditions of peoples, many challenges remain. Men may live longer, but that does not change much in their quality of life. Hundreds of thousands of young people are completing school and yet they have no guarantee of finding decent work. According to the UNDP for the year 2017, (edition of 2018), average HDI levels have risen significantly since 1990 – by 22% worldwide and by 51% in the least developed countries. A further examination of the elements constituting the HDI provides data on the unequal distribution of results in education, life expectancy and income within countries. The inequality-adjusted human development index makes it possible to compare the levels of international inequality: the higher this level, the lower the HDI of a country. Considerable variations in the quality of education, healthcare and many essential aspects of life are observed from one country to another. A primary school class has an average of 39 students for one teacher in sub-Saharan Africa and 35 in South Asia, but 16 to 18 in OECD countries, East Asia and the Pacific, as well as in Europe and Central Asia.
On the other hand, while 28 and 27 doctors respectively care for 10 000 people in OECD and European countries, and in the countries of East Asia and the Pacific, these figures are reduced to only eight in South Asia and fewer than two in sub-Saharan Africa. Norway, Switzerland, Australia, Ireland and Germany dominate the ranking of the 189 countries and territories of the most recent HDI released today by the United Nations Development Programme, while Niger, Central African Republic, southern Sudan, Chad and Burundi are at the bottom of the table of national health, education and income outcomes. The transition from a large number of countries to the higher category of the HDI reflects a global trend towards continuous improvement in human development: of the 189 countries for which the HDI is calculated, 59 now belong to the category “Very high human Development” and 38 only at the category “Low Human development”, compared to 46 and 49 respectively eight years ago (2010). The HDI was developed in 1990 by the Pakistani economist Mahbub Ul Haq and the Indian economist, Nobel Prize in Economics Amartya Sen. The HDI is a composite index, ranging from 0 (appalling) to 1 (excellent), calculated by the average of three indices. The first aspect (A) quantifies health/longevity (measured by life expectancy at birth), which provides an indirect measure of the satisfaction of essential material needs such as access to healthy eating, drinking water, housing, good hygiene and medical care adopted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1990. It is more reliable than the previously indicator used, per capita GDP, that does not provide information on individual or collective well-being but quantifies economic output. The second aspect (B) is the knowledge or level of education measured by the adult literacy rate (percentage of 15 years and older who are able to quickly write and understand a short and straightforward text dealing with daily life) and the gross enrolment rate ( Combined rate measurement for primary, secondary and higher levels). It reflects the satisfaction of intangible needs such as the ability to participate in decision making in the workplace or society. The third aspect (C) is the standard of living (logarithm of the gross domestic product per capita in purchasing power parity), to encompass the elements of quality of life that are not described by the first two indices such as mobility or access to Culture thus giving HDI = ADE divided by three.
Unveiled at the annual meetings of the World Bank and the IMF in October 2018, the Human Capital Index is one of the issues addressed in the 2019 edition of the World Development Report entitled “The Changing Nature of Work”, which deals with the importance of investing in human capital to prepare for tomorrow’s work.
For 126 of the 157 countries covered by the index, the data broken down by gender, the new Human capital Index shows that 56% of children born today in the world will be deprived of more than half of their potential income in adulthood because states do not make the necessary investments to produce an educated, resilient and well-off population, ready for the world of work of tomorrow. The human capital index measures the level of human capital that a child born today is likely to achieve by the age of 18, given the health and education services in his country. It measures the distance between a country and the excellent situation of schooling and health.
According to this report, “Human capital is often the only capital of the poorest people”. It is one of the key factors in sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Investments in health and education have not received the attention they deserve. This index establishes a direct link between improved health and population education, productivity and economic growth. Hoping that it will encourage countries to take urgent action and invest more and better in their population. All countries, regardless of their income levels, must develop their human capital to be able to compete in the economy of the future.
Thus, this measure incorporates three factors:
Survival: a child born today will he reach an age to go to school?
Schooling: what will be the duration of his or her education and what will he have acquired?
Health: will this child leave the school system in good health, ready to continue his education or enter the labour market
Also, it is within this framework that special global attention should be given to the human development indexes of UNDP and the Bank which are a significant breakthrough in the use of more credible indicators than the gross domestic product (GDP). According to many international experts, these indicators include essential shortcomings, mainly: the selection and weighting of the selected indicators; i.e. the quality and reliability of the data used to calculate them which are highly variable from one country to another; the use of averages, without considering both socio-professional and spatial inequalities. The level of both schooling and health varies considerably between countries, and finally, some social indicators are difficult to quantify distorting comparisons from one country to another. Also, the qualitative analysis must necessarily supplement the quantitative deficiency. It is also desirable for both the UNDP and the World Bank reports supplementing their indices with new indicators that would consider, participation, gender, enjoyment of human rights, civil liberties, social integration, environmental sustainability and for third world countries, the weight of their ‘informal’ sphere. All of this will assume a statistical apparatus that is efficient and adapted to social situations including standards of good governance and indices of corruption and transparency.
At a time, when and contrary to the speeches of most Algerian officials, we also witnessed two declarations by two principal partners of Algeria, who translated the concerns of both domestic and foreign investors. The Ambassador of the United States of America, Mr John Desrocher, for whom Algeria, in order to “attract other investments, will require more transparency, predictability and better market access”, the other of Jean Louis Leven, senior French official in charge of technological and industrial cooperation between France and Algeria, who deplores the “moving economic regulations of Algeria and for which the Algerians do not sell their country well enough to foreign investors and tourists”. According to the UNDP index, between 1990 and 2017, the Algerian HDI rose from 0.577 to 0.754, an increase of 30.6 per cent, according to the UNDP report. The index shows an upward curve from 0.644 in 2000 to 0.749 in 2015 and then to 0.754 in 2017 in the category of countries with a high level of human development. Algeria came in 2017 to the 85th place of this ranking of the countries; an increase compared to 0.752 obtained in 2016 but which had, then, placed Algeria in the 83rd place of this chart which evaluates the efforts of 189 countries and territories in this field. Algeria has significantly improved its ranking at the African level and thus points to second place, just after Seychelles nearly having figured fifth in the edition of 2016. In the Maghreb, Algeria is ahead of Morocco (123rd place), Tunisia (95th place), Libya (108th place), Mauritania (159th place) and the HDI of Algeria in 2017 remains above the average of 0.699 obtained by the Arab countries, according to the explanatory note which was consecrated to him. Life expectancy at birth in Algeria recorded a slight progression of 76.1 years in 2016 to 76.3 years in 2017, but with a slight difference of 77.6 years for women and 75.1 years for men. Following the same trend, the expected duration of schooling increased from 14.3 years to 14.4 years, while the average duration remained the same for the two years to 8 years. Enrolment is a little higher among women than men whom last year was 14.6 years old compared with 14.1 years. The gender gap is widening as shown by the GNP per capita index, where men earn $23,181, compared to only $4,232 for women. The global index for GNP per capita was $13,802 last year compared to $13,809 in 2016. According to the World Bank index of 2018, the 28 “Pioneer” countries are Saudi Arabia, Armenia, Bhutan, Costa Rica, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Ethiopia, Georgia, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lesotho, Lebanon, Malawi, Morocco, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tunisia and Ukraine. However, Africa is at the bottom of the scale. In this table of 157 countries, Seychelles 43rd World achieves a national index of 0.68 points, which means for the bank, that the “Economic potential” and the future of the population (and the country as a whole) is amputated by 32%. It also implies heavy economic losses and an annual reduction in GDP growth in the years to come. Seychelles is followed by Mauritius (world 52nd with 0.63), Algeria (World 93rd with 0.52), Kenya (World 94th with 0.52), Tunisia (World 96th with 0.51) and Morocco (98th worldwide with 0.50). As for other greats on the mainland, they have no better clues and are lost at the bottom of the leader-board. This is, for instance, Egypt (World 104th with 0.49), South Africa (World 126th with 0.41) and Nigeria (152nd worldwide with 0.34).
Meanwhile, it must be recognised that in Algeria, a lot of effort in education in investments was made. However, the alarming drop in the educational levels could be explained by mainly relying on the quantity factor rather on the quality, of both school and universities ending up by obvious inadequacy of the vocational training to the new mutations, a significant loss from primary to secondary, then from secondary to universities, except for about 20% (part of which is expatriated through brain drain) . From 1974 to 2018, the improvement of the purchasing power of Algerians goes through a reorientation of the current socio-economic policy in order to necessarily have a growth rate higher than the population growth rate otherwise the unemployment rate will go up (growth rate higher than 7/8% over several years to create 350.000/400,000 new workstations per year). This growth rate depends on the new governance and the improvement of human capital eternal resource much more important than all the ephemeral mining resources by a fight against mismanagement, over costs, corruption, and targeting projects creator of value added within the framework of universal values. What helps alleviate social tensions is paradoxically the social subsidies/transfers, the housing crisis and the ‘informal’ sphere that allow for combined income (sharing the same charges). Generalised subsidies without targeting and the resolution of the housing crisis without an economic stimulus. Its recognition of an important state effort for subsidies and social but generalised transfers are a source of social injustice and wastefulness. Social transfers budgeted for 2019 will amount to 1,772,500,000,000 Algerian Dinars (DZD), representing 8.2% of GDP and up DZD12.5 billion (+ 0.7%) compared to 2018 and about 21% of the total state budget which is close to DZD8.56 trillion. Social transfers have reached DZD1,625 billion in 2017 versus DZD1,239 billion in 2010. This amount was increased to DZD1.76 trillion in the fiscal year 2018, up by almost 8% compared to 2017. The rate of social transfers had reached 22.8% of the state’s general budget over the period 2000-2004, then 24.5% over the period 2005-2009, then 25% of the state budget in 2010-2015 and 23% between 2016 and 2017.