According to a report of Reuters dated Sunday June 18, 2017, Saudi Arabia is banning Egyptian Agriculture. It is in the midst of what is called the Gulf crisis in which Egypt sided with Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain in blockading Qatar. Egypt is well known since ancient times to produce along the Nile and its delta a wide range of traditionally grown cereals. More recently these include rice that became one of the major field crops and the second most important export crop after cotton. The country’s exports include all other vegetables and fruits like for instance the object of this article Strawberries.
The Maghreb Union the world’s worst trading bloc is a vast expanse of land between the Sahara, the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and is made of nations with relatively homogeneous ethnic compositions that are largely dominated by the Amazigh component. The Arab identity that was inlaid during the 8th and 9th centuries came eventually to dominate the whole without however convening it, within one State or complementary neighbouring States.
I note with satisfaction in this month of February 2017 that the respective Departments of Energy and Transport will be taking actions as recommended alas ten years earlier, by an audit carried out under my direction and assisted by the then leaders and managers of State Oil Company ‘SONATRACH’, independent experts and world-renowned Ernst Young consultants . Having been interviewed by the economic commission of the Algerian National Congress to which [ . . . ]
From time immemorial, transhumance of one shape or another, in the Middle East, has been a common fact of life and still is to this day. Trump’s strategy on Immigration from the MENA is these days not exactly that different from those known throughout the region’s History.
In effect, the region’s history as beautifully introduced by Lonely Planet goes like this:
Although rock art dating back to 10,000 BC lies hidden amid the desert monoliths of the Jebel Acacus in Libya, little is known about the painters or their nomadic societies, which lived on the outermost rim of the Middle East.
The enduring shift from nomadism to more-sedentary organised societies began in the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq) and the Nile River Valley of Ancient Egypt.
In about 5000 BC a culture known as Al-Ubaid first appeared in Mesopotamia. We known little about it except that its influence eventually spread down what is now the coast of the Gulf. Stone-Age artefacts have also been found in Egypt’s Western Desert, Israel’s Negev Desert and in the West Bank town of Jericho. Sometime [ . . . ]
An article of Wagdy Sawahel for University World News of 13 January 2017 Issue No:188 dwelt on the hot subject of Research in North African universities, particularly of Egypt. We reproduce the said article that confirms the need for some political decision in favour of Research in the present universities by facilitating funding, and supporting governance through institutional transparency and academic freedom so as to possibly improve on the current movement towards research. North Africa’s Research Universities on the rise – slowly Universities in North Africa are starting to join the research universities movement, recognising its potential in fostering innovation, promoting entrepreneurship and developing a sustainable knowledge economy, but they still face significant challenges. “Research universities, which are mainly responsible for offering research-oriented programmes in an academic setting, are emerging in North Africa,” Samir Khalaf Abd-El-Aal, research professor at the National Research Centre in Cairo, told University World News. “However, [this] is in its early stages.” [. . .]
The World Bank published this article on September 15th, 2016. It is about the ominous problem that is well known since time immemorial throughout the Middle East as people’s movements away from war, insecurity and economic shortcomings. This phenomenon rightly labelled here as Global Forced Displacement Crisis as described in this other article of the World Bank is widespread regardless of to level of income of countries. According to this article, the last few years have seen a spike in conflicts, and almost 60 million people are displaced globally. Moreover, violent extremism is a growing concern.
Local Solutions to the Global Forced Displacement Crisis
The ongoing Syrian crisis has provided renewed impetus for the global community to re-think the issue of forced displacement for the displaced and hosts alike.
Key elements for addressing this issue include involving local host communities in long-term planning, enhancing job opportunities, and improving sustainable environmental and ecosystem services.
The World Bank is working to expand its support for the displaced and their host communities in low and middle-income countries across the world.