The following article titled Oliver Wyman: MENA youth’s perception of the private sector by Georgia Wilson – Leadership is worth reading to comprehend the peculiar situation of the MENA youth. In effect, the region despite having the highest youth population shares in the world, as well as the highest rates of youth unemployment, there seems to be still some sort of freedom of choice between private and public service employment.
Business Chief looks at Oliver Wyman, and INJAZ Al-Arab recently conducted research on the youth perception of the private sector.
Across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, over 2,400 young people between the age of 16 and 36 were surveyed to gain insight into the youth perception of the private sector.
“It is critical to capture the perspective of the youth and assess what they require to bolster the private sector of the future. We see a healthy inclination towards entrepreneurship, and a clear idea of what factors can facilitate lifelong learning. These are both indicators of their perception of the private sector, which is key to sustainable economic growth of their countries and the region. The youth are a key driver in the realization of economic stability, and we are proud to support INJAZ Al-Arab in helping the youth to fulfill their economic potential,” commented Jeff Youssef, Partner at Oliver Wyman.
Key findings of the youth survey:
79% feel positive about the private sector’s contribution to the economy – a 41% increase from 2018
75% expect the private sector to grow in the next five years – an 11% decrease from 2018
55% are discouraged from working in the private sector due to lack of opportunities and lack of competitive benefits – an 8% increase from 2018
50% perceive the “who you know” favouritism within organisations, to be the primary obstacle when seeking private sector employment
78% see themselves working in the private sector in the near future
84% feel inspired to start their own entrepreneurial venture in the near future
53% see leadership, creativity and communication as the most important skills for the private sector
“For young people today, it is extremely important that they are well equipped with skills, knowledge, and sense of entrepreneurship to enter the workforce. INJAZ’s collaboration with Oliver Wyman will further allow us to tackle the issue of youth unemployment in MENA, as we are certain that the findings are of great benefit to multiple stakeholders and that our initiative reflects on their potential to impact policy reform, program creation, and educational institution transformation,” added Akef Aqrabawi, CEO at INJAZ Al-Arab.
Gulf wealth: all that glitters is not gold. Little suggests that fabulously wealthy Gulf states and their Middle Eastern and North African beneficiaries have recognized what is perhaps the most important lesson of this year’s popular uprisings in Algeria and Sudan and the 2011 Arab revolts: All that glitters is not gold.
Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and to a lesser extent Kuwait have in the last decade invested billions of dollars in either reversing or hollowing out the revolts’ achievements in a bid to ensure that political change elsewhere in the region does not come to haunt them.
Qatar, in a counterintuitive strategy that has earned it the ire of the rulers of Saudi Arabia and the UAE, has sought to achieve the same goal by attempting to be on the right side of the region’s forces of change.
The irony is that both approaches, despite also involving huge investments at home in economic diversification, education, and healthcare, could produce the very result Gulf states seek to avoid: a region that has many of the trappings of 21st century knowledge states but that is incapable of catering to the aspirations of a youth bulge expected to annually increase the work force by a million people over the next 12 years.
UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund, concluded earlier this year, that the region’s youth bulge was a double-edged sword. It could either pose a threat to regional stability or be an asset for development.
Turning the youth bulge into an asset “requires urgent and significant investment to create opportunities for meaningful learning, social engagement and work, all of which are currently limited, particularly for young women and the most vulnerable,” the UN agency said in a report entitled MENA (Middle East and North Africa) Generation 2030.
UNICEF arrived at its conclusion even though Gulf states have adopted grandiose plans that envision them becoming within a matter of a decade or two diversified, knowledge-driven economies that enact the social reforms needed to create opportunity for all segments of society.
The group’s conclusion applies as much to the wealthy Gulf states as it does to the Arab beneficiaries of their politically motivated financial largesse.
The problems with the flexing of the Gulf states’ financial muscle as well as the implementation of reform plans are multi-fold.
They relate as much to quality of the upgrading of services such as education as they are about how political intent shapes development efforts and how high domestic debt in countries like Egypt, where 27 percent of government expenditure goes to interest payments, and Lebanon, which spends 38 percent of its budget on debt servicing, benefits Gulf banks and stymies social and economic development.
Credit rating agency Fitch recently downgraded Lebanon’s credit rating to CCC from B- because of “intensifying pressure on Lebanon’s financing model and increasing risks to the government’s debt servicing capacity.”
“In Lebanon, just over 50 percent of the country’s bank assets are held by GCC-related banks, in Palestine this figure is 63 per cent, and in Jordan it is as high as 86 percent,” Mr. Advani wrote in a review of political economist Adam Hanieh’s study of Gulf finance, Money, Markets, and Monarchies.
Mr Hanieh argues that the bulk of the debt payments are to financial establishments whose major shareholders include Gulf institutions in a process in which “the Arab state…increasingly mediates the transfer of national wealth to large Gulf-related banks.”
Mr Advani warned that “indebted governments are compelled to intensify a politics of austerity, further trapping these societies in cycles of debt. Investments in social programs or infrastructural developments are often stalled. Popular movements are unable to realize their demands at the state level due to the requirements of foreign creditors and domestic capitalists. The ensuing scenario is one where alternative politics are asphyxiated and increasingly circumscribed by an atrophied status quo.”
That may well be the purpose of the exercise with economic diversification efforts in the Gulf being driven more by the need of autocracies to upgrade their autocratic style and create opportunity for a restive youth in a bid to ensure regime survival rather than by the acknowledgement of a government’s responsibility to serve the people.
The result is a flawed approach to all aspects of reform.
In Saudi Arabia, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s Vision 2030 economic and social reform plan that calls for greater private sector involvement has turned into a top down effort that emphasizes state control with the government’s Public Investment Fund (PIF) as the key player.
A combination of depressed oil prices and the recent replacement of energy minister Khalid al-Falih as chairman of the board of Aramco by PIF head Yasir al-Rumayyan, a close associate of Prince Mohammed, raises questions about the state oil company’s positioning in advance of a much-touted initial public offering.
Ellen Wald, an energy analyst and author of a history of Aramco, the kingdom’s main source of revenue, noted that at PIF Mr. Al-Rumayyan had overseen investments more geared towards speculative gains than the sustainable growth of Saudi wealth.
Nonetheless, Ms Wald cautions that Mr Al-Rumayyan’s appointment “doesn’t necessarily bode well for Aramco, which is a different kind of company. It has to make stable decisions for the long term,” she said.
By the same token, UNICEF warned that poverty, violent conflict, restrictive social norms, patriarchy, rights violations and lack of safe spaces for expression and recreation were limiting opportunities as well as civic adolescent and youth engagement.
Gulf emphasis on geopolitical dominance, regime survival and return on financial investment produces short term solutions that often exacerbate conflict, produce little trickle-down effect and few prospects for long-term stability.
“As a result, adolescents and youth in MENA (the Middle East and North Africa) feel disillusioned, with girls and young women, refugees, those with disabilities and the poor being particularly marginalised and underrepresented,” the UNICEF report said.
“Youth unemployment in the region is currently the highest in the world. Education systems are failing to prepare adolescents and youth for the workplace, and markets are not generating urgently needed jobs,” the report warned.
Gulf wealth glitters but if the UNICEF report is anything to go by, it has yet to demonstrate that it can produce the gold of a development that is sustainable and benefits not only all segments of Gulf societies but also of those across the region that have become dependent on it.
Dr James M. Dorsey is a senior fellow at Nanyang Technological University’s S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, an adjunct senior research fellow at the National University of Singapore’s Middle East Institute and co-director of the University of Wuerzburg’s Institute of Fan Culture.
Teaching entrepreneurial thinking at a young age can help kids learn and hone valuable skills that they can use to cope with stress and unforeseen issues that arise in their ever-changing world.
Moving from childhood into adolescence can be a very challenging time for kids. Not only are social norms changing, but their ability to adapt to their quickly evolving environments is being developed. Schools change, responsibilities change, and their lives become different from day to day. Throughout this time, maturing happens, and it aids in their ability to critically think, react to situations, and become more independent.
But is there a way to develop these skills sooner to help them mature, and ultimately, cope better? In a nutshell, yes. Teaching entrepreneurial thinking at a young age can help kids learn and hone valuable skills that they can use to cope with stress and unforeseen issues that arise in their ever-changing world. Creativity, problem-solving, and emotional intelligence are just a few of these skills that can be gained through early teaching and long-term practice. For kids that practice entrepreneurial thinking, in difficult situations, they are able to problem solve effectively by analyzing long-term ramifications. This kind of processing comes with so many benefits that will bode well for kids from childhood all the way into adulthood.
1. Positive habit-forming Entrepreneurial thinking is not just an activity, but rather a lens through which all situations are viewed. This is also known as a “positive habit.” Instead of going down another path, the child has to make a conscious decision to change their perspective. By making these daily decisions, kids become more aware of the benefits that come along with forming positive habits and find them easier to engage in a variety of life aspects.
2. Emotional support When a child is able to effectively problem solve, and see the fruit of their efforts, positive feelings and increased self-worth follow. This internal confidence leads to kids feeling emotionally supported, and it has a great effect on their ability to take criticism and grow without fear of failure.
3. Behavior Most of the time, bad behavior comes from the inability to control one’s emotions and/ or the inability to communicate. Practicing entrepreneurial thinking solves both of those inhibitors by giving the child the tools to be able to look at the problem from a big-picture and emotionally intelligent perspective. All of the attributes that are gained from teaching entrepreneurial thinking tend to lead to better behavior, emotional health, and positive habits by giving kids the tools to not only cope, but thrive. Equipping them early helps kids navigate the landscape of their lives so that they can face obstacles with creativity and without fear. Difficult situations, new experiences and issues that arise are all the more easily handled and learned from by learning and practicing entrepreneurial thinking young.
The MENA region according to a UNICEF report, without improved education and meaningful work opportunities will have to face the critical risk of an unprecedented increase of 5 million out-of-school children, and over a 10 per cent rise in youth unemployment by 2030. Xinhua came up with the following article edited by Mu Xuequan.
UNITED NATIONS, Aug. 8 (Xinhua) — Without improved education and meaningful work opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the region faces a critical risk of an unprecedented increase of 5 million out-of-school children by 2030, according to a United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) report: MENA Generation 2030, which was published Thursday.
MENA Generation 2030 is the first report to make a direct link between investment in children, economic growth and social development.
The report warns that over a 10 per cent rise in youth unemployment by 2030 is expected, if the situation remains unchanged.
According to the report, the region has the highest youth unemployment rates in the world; nearly 15 million children are out of school due to a combination of poverty, discrimination, poor quality learning, violence in schools and armed conflict.
“We are at a serious risk of not meeting the Sustainable Development Goals in the MENA region with devastating consequences on children and young people,” said Geert Cappelaere, UNICEF Regional Director for the Middle East and North Africa.
“The only way out is through the implementation and budgeting of policies for children, ending violence and armed conflict, having a politically and socially stable environment, and promoting gender equality,” Cappelaere added.
The report urges governments to increase financing for early childhood development, improve basic education and simultaneously nurture the skills needed to match the rapidly changing economy.
Fourth Industrial Revolution is catapulting us towards a connected society.
Improvements in the availability and delivery of communications services means
there are now more than four billion internet users, over half the world’s
digital literacy and skills aren’t spreading as fast as connectivity. And that
increases cyber-risks, widens the gender divide and creates skills shortages.
For example, children living in countries with low ICT penetration are 1.3
times more likely to be involved with cyber-risks than those in countries with
high ICT penetration. By 2022, only 30% of the digital workforce will be women
and the UK alone will need an additional 500,000 workers in digital industries
by 2022. In the US, of the nearly six million jobs expected to require tech
skills in the future, there’s a projected pool of only 3.2 million candidates.
talk to my peers leading multinational organisations, skills and talent
shortages is one of their top concerns, no matter what industry or region they
are based in. It’s easy to see why. 90% of jobs will need digital skills in the
next three years. And at a time when most of our organisations are undergoing a
digital transformation, the digital skills gap is hampering progress in 54% of
our organisations and is costing our economies billions.
a father, what really brought home to me the challenge we face was that 65% of
children starting school today will hold jobs in the future that don’t yet
are no longer enough
though I find that digital literacy and skills are no longer enough. Young
people grow up surrounded by technology, but too many have no idea how it all
works – and don’t fully appreciate how it will shape their futures. They see it
as being geeky, not relevant, too hard or even a waste of their time. If you
talk to non-users of the internet, they don’t talk about not having the right
skills. They talk about it not being for them.
look at our workforce, competencies like data analytics and coding aren’t
always the initial key to getting an exciting job. One of our most promising
young cyber security apprentices, Rachel, studied music, not coding. The
skills, abilities and attitudes Rachel learnt playing the violin are now
helping her flourish in her role in our security team.
rise of digital intelligence
Coalition for Digital Intelligence calls this new requirement ‘digital
intelligence’ – not only technical skills but also abilities related to
managing screen time, critical thinking and digital empathy. Singapore’s
Digital Readiness Blueprint highlights this with its recommendation of spelling
out a set of basic digital skills for everyday activities. These skills include
searching for information on the Web, making cashless payments, using messaging
and digital government services, and spotting fake news and online scams.
the skills gap forecast to quadruple between 2020 and 2030, as leaders,
businesses and governments, we need to build a culture where young people see
tech know-how as the new way to get ahead and make the most of technology’s
power to shape their lives. A culture of creative problem-solving based on
digital capability. That’s why I’m delighted that BT is supporting the
Coalition for Digital Intelligence.
people get more from technology
why we’re scaling up our drive to help people get more from technology through
enabling, inspiring and equipping. Enabling teachers and parents to show the
way, inspiring young people to find technology relevant and interesting and
equipping schools to use technology effectively.
focussed our initial efforts on supporting primary school teachers because they
play a crucial role in setting children’s attitudes and aspirations. We’ve
already trained 63,000 teachers and two million children as part of our
Barefoot Computing project. Free learning materials and games encourage kids’
computational thinking, helping them understand the building blocks of the
digital world, like logic, sequencing, abstraction and programming. Barefoot
resources also help to develop other important digital intelligence skills like
numeracy, literacy, collaboration and problem-solving.
course, it’s not just young children. Amongst teenagers, much of the focus of
digital skills is on staying safe. That’s vital, but we also need to make the
digital world more transparent and empowering. Our innovation hothousing
techniques helped us come up with new ways to support kids understand the
commercial realities of the internet and navigate the digital world with
confidence, answering questions like how companies and YouTube stars make money
online, why gaming is addictive and why they find it difficult to put their
At a time when Globalisation 4.0 needs global, digital citizens, I believe that a lack of digital intelligence is an obstacle for people and the organisations that employ them. We have to address it now to enable people, and our organisations, to succeed in the future.
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